Tretia podmienková veta

Tvar

V tretej podmienkovej vete je v 'if' vete predminulý čas a v hlavnej vete predprítomný podmieňovací spôsob jednoduchý alebo predprítomný podmieňovací spôsob priebehový.

If veta (podmienka) Hlavná veta (výsledok)
If + predminulý čas predprítomný podmieňovací spôsob jednoduchý alebo priebehový
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Tak, ako pri všetkých podmienkových vetách, poradie viet nie je nemenné. Možno budete musieť zmeniť poradie zámen a prispôsobiť interpunkciu, keď zmeníte poradie viet, ale význam zostáva rovnaký.

Príklady
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Funkcia

Tretia podmienková veta sa vzťahuje k nemožnému stavu v minulosti a jeho pravdepodobnému výsledku v minulosti. Tieto vety sú plne hypotetické a nereálne, pretože je už neskoro niečo zmeniť. V tretej podmienkovej vete sa stretávame s ľútosťou nad niečím. Realita je opačná alebo v rozpore s tým, čo veta vyjadruje. V tretej podmienkovej vete je čas v minulosti a situácia je hypotetická.

Príklady
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

V tretej podmienkovej vete môžete tiež použiť modálne slovesá v hlavnej časti vety namiesto "would" pre vyjadrenie miery istoty, povolenia alebo odporúčania ohľadom výsledku.

Príklady
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Skracovanie

Aj would aj had sa dajú skrátiť na 'd, čo môže byť mätúce, pokiaľ nemáte v tretích podmienkových vetách istotu. Zapamätajte si dve pravidlá:
1. would sa nikdy nenachádza v if-vete, takže pokiaľ sa v if vete nachádza 'd, musí to byť skratka od had.
2. had sa nikdy nenachádza pred have, takže ak sa 'd objavuje na zámene hneď pred have, musí to byť skrátené would.

Príklady
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Predprítomný podmieňovací spôsob

Predprítomný podmieňovací spôsob každého slovesa sa skladá z troch častí:
would + have + minulé príčastie
Have, za ktorým sa nachádza minulé príčastie sa tiež používa v iných vetných konštrukciách. Nazýva sa "perfect infinitive".

Podmet + would + have + minulé príčastie
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: predprítomný podmieňovací spôsob
Kladné Záporné Opytovacie Opytovacie záporné
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?