Minulý čas jednoduchý

Definícia minulého času jednoduchého

Minulý čas jednoduchý, niekedy nazývaný aj préteritum, sa používa pri rozprávaní o dokončenej činnosti v čase pred terajškom. Minulý čas jednoduchý predstavuje základný tvar pre anglický minulý čas. Čas, kedy sa činnosť stala, môže byť v nedávnej alebo dávnej minulosti a jej trvanie nie je podstatné.

Príklady
  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

Minulý čas jednoduchý používajte vždy, keď chcete povedať, kedy sa niečo stalo. Spája sa s konkrétnymi výrazmi minulého času.

  • frekvencia: often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • presný bod v minulosti: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • neurčitý bod v minulosti: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago
    People lived in caves a long time ago.
    She played the piano when she was a child.

Poznámka: slovo ago predstavuje užitočný spôsob vyjadrenia vzdialenosti v čase. Je umiestnené za časovým obdobím: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

Pozor: Minulý čas jednoduchý môže v angličtine vyzerať rovnako, ako jeden z časov vo vašom jazyku, ale význam môže byť odlišný.

Tvorenie minulého času jednoduchého

Vzor minulého času jednoduchého pre pravidelné slovesá
Kladné
Podmet + sloveso + ed  
I skipped.  
Záporné
Podmet + did not + neurčitok bez to
They didn't go.
Opytovacie
Did + podmet + neurčitok bez to
Did she arrive?
Opytovací zápor
Did not + podmet + neurčitok bez to
Didn't you play?
To Walk
Kladné Záporné Opytovacie
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
Minulý jednoduchý čas slovies to be, to have, to do
Podmet Sloveso
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

Poznámky ku kladným, záporným a opytovacím formám

Kladné

Kladná veta v minulom čase jednoduchom je jednoduchá.

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
Záporné a opytovacie

Pri zápornom a opytovacom tvare "to do" ako bežného slovesa, použite pomocné sloveso "did", napr. We didn't do our homework last night.
Záporný tvar od "have" v minulom jednoduchom čase sa zvyčajne tvorí použitím pomocného slovesa "did", ale niekedy len jednoduchým pridaním not, alebo jeho skratky "n't".

V opytovacom tvare sa so slovom "have" v minulom čase jednoduchom používa pomocné sloveso "did".

Príklady
  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

Poznámka: Spolu so zápornými a opytovacími tvarmi všetkých slovies minulého času jednoduchého vždy používajte pomocné sloveso 'did''.

Minulý čas jednoduchý a nepravidelné slovesá

Niektoré slovesá sú nepravidelné v minulom čase jednoduchom. Tu je niekoľko najbežnejších z nich.

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?